DERECHO ADMINISTRATIVO PRIMER CURSO [ANDRES SERRA ROJAS] on techetolyson.tk Get your site here, or download a FREE site Reading App. Derecho administrativo: Doctrina, legislación y jurisprudencia (Spanish Edition) [ Andrés Serra Rojas] on techetolyson.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying Don't have a site? Get your site here, or download a FREE site Reading App. Available in the National Library of Australia collection. Author: Serra Rojas, Andres, ; Format: Book; v. ; 24 cm.
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Pudieran andres serra rojas derecho administrativo como fuente indirecta del adminishrativo administrativo al igual que la costumbre. You can view this on the NLA website. Today, participating in the Security Council will be a challenge since an important part of its work will concentrate on the conflict in Afghanistan and the war against terrorism. Mexico has ratified almost all the United Nations conventions against terrorism. Twelve international commitments have been signed since four dealing with the hijacking of airplanes and airport security; one to protect diplomats; an agreement about hostage taking; the convention on the protection of nuclear 8 certainly be important differences with the United States; and others with global implications like the development of stricter commitments for fighting terrorism, nuclear security and arms of mass destruction like chemical and biological weapons.
Mexico will have to assume some kind of responsibility in these efforts; otherwise it would have no reason to be in the Security Council. This will challenge the country to find a new way of carrying out an active foreign policy. We should remember that during the Cold War Mexico had very different positions from those of the superpowers on matters of weapons of mass destruction.
The Mexican position is based on general, complete disarmament, while that of the countries with nuclear weapons —which, as permanent members, control the Security Council— is that of arms control, not elimination. In the war against terrorism, Mexico has edged closer to the United States and is actively cooperating with it, particularly in matters of intelligence, border security, diplomacy, air security and, in general, the control of foreigners who could enter the United States illegally through Mexican territory.
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Mexico has also put forward the possibility of building a North American security perimeter together with Canada so that the United States does not close its land borders given that the future of the North American Free Trade Agreement is in danger from a reduction in trade in goods along the borders and a drop in migration.
During the Cold War, Mexico kept to the sidelines of the inter-American mechanisms for hemispheric security. However, it did participate in building the framework for global security by promoting the Treaty of Tlatelolco, consolidated in , to create the nuclear arms-free Politics zone in the hemisphere.
Similarly, in the s and s, Mexico sought peaceful solutions to the conflicts in Central America. It was one of the designers of the Contadora Group, which tried between and to achieve the signing of an overall peace agreement among the five Central American governments.
In the cases of El Salvador and Guate- mala, Mexico invested a large amount of diplomatic and logistical resources. This is the case today in the Colombian conflict in which, despite the enormous difficulties, partial gains have been made in initiating peace talks between the government and guerrilla groups.
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, participating in the UN Security Council will be a great diplomatic opportunity, but at the same time an important challenge. The international tension arising out of the September 11 terrorist attacks make all security mechanisms and accords important. A new international security framework is being built and many of its mechanisms and commitments will be designed in the Security Council. The UN will play a very significant role in the conflict with Afghanistan and fundamentalist terrorist groups.
Equally, mechanisms for cooperation against terrorism, organized crime, drug trafficking and illegal traffic of individuals; to protect air, sea and even electronic communications; security against biological, chemical and nuclear weapons; and proposals to support refugees and solve human catastrophes like that of the Afghan refugees in Pakistan and Iran will force countries like Mexico to participate more actively in accordance with its new responsibilities in the international system.
There is, however, little clarity about where many of these changes are heading, something that will become more problematic after the return to economic stagnation in With regard to unionism, particularly, the visible signs seem to be contradictory and make for few certainties.
Even in the discussion about possible reforms to the Federal Labor Law, the positions of businessmen and the government are the two long sides of a not-very-equilateral triangle. This is the case despite the fact that the corporatist union leaderships have shown enormous willingness to collaborate with President Vicente Fox, who defeated the Institutional Revolutionary Party PRI , the party of which most Mexican unions have historically been a part.
It should be remembered that membership in official PRI unions was automatic, a stipulation of their by-laws.
Now, why has a union structure that had been very powerful in the political system, that had been functional for the import substitution industrial- and sources of power of the unionism currently in crisis. Most analysts think that the power of Mexican unions depended on a complex conjunction of economic, political, social and cultural elements at the center of which was the corporatist agreement commanded by the state. Inside their organizations, the corporatist leaders took responsibility for maintaining order in production; but outside the companies, they also took responsibility for keeping their members in line in society and turning them into faithful voters for the official party.
And why, given this crisis, has no force appeared on the scene —for example a democratic, pluralist force, or even a neo-corporatist force— to take the place of that outof-date, authoritarian, extremely corrupt structure?
It would be impossible to answer these questions fully in a brief article. It is possible, however, to cite a few figures and ideas, though to do so necessarily implies making brief mention of the historic characteristics tant for union action: the negotiation of bargaining agreements with management.
This has different causes. One is that the big decisions about labor and wage policy were decided on a macropolitical level by the executive branch through consultations with management in the first place and with the top leadership of the unions in the second place. This meant that the real margin for negotiation of wages and benefits was very narrow at a company, sector and regional level.
Another reason is that the issues linked to production itself were the exclusive property of management itself, both in the private sector and in the vast para-state sector, and were not really a realm open to union negotiation. It is important to relate this to the fact that quality and productivity were actually of minor concern to management, due to the existence of an overprotected domestic market where it sent the immense majority of its output.
This corporatist arrangement compensated union leaders in several ways. Outside the realm of labor relations, they constantly occupied elected posts, having run on a PRI ticket for governor, senator and deputy, as well as city use groups of thugs and hired killers.
In extreme cases, such as the railroad workers movement or the electrical workers movement, to name only two very important ones, government repression was used directly to impose union order again.
With regard to legislation, Article of the Constitution and the Federal Labor Law passed initially in , amended several times and completely revamped in were originally conceived as instruments to protect workers.
However, over the decades they became the weapons of union corporatism due, among other things, to the broad room The Fox administration has strongly emphasized promoting non-waged employment linked above all to self-employment in small and micro-businesses.
Another privilege was their being allowed to run their organizations in a completely discretional, authoritarian way. To deal with periodic bouts of unrest, authorities allowed the leaders to 12 for maneuvering that they have always given to union leaderships in the internal management of their organizations. The Constitution and the law also became instruments for government intervention through forced arbitration.
And to this, of course, was added the enormous corruption of administrative agencies, particularly the labor conciliation and arbitration boards. This does not mean that union leaderships stayed in office simply through violence and imposition, although these elements were present. In addition, within the confines of their own rules, the unions were the guarantors of annual wage hikes, which grew in real terms from the mids to the s, job security for those who toed the line and different social benefits.
It should also not be forgotten that those years in general brought sustained economic growth, a rise in real wages and a substantial increase in jobs in industry, particularly in the para-state sector, as well as in services and the very large government bureaucracy. Over the last 20 years, this entire scheme of things has altered profoundly.
On the one hand there has been a prolonged period of recurrent crises and restructuring of production, including such measures as the privatization of most of the para-state sector always accompanied by heavy lay-offs , the relocation of industry from central Mexico to the central north and the north and the imposition of —usually unilateral— flexibility in labor relations. On the other hand, in the same period, Mexico has gone through an intense process of political change that many have called a transition to democracy, which has Politics brought about the end of the singleparty system and opened the door to a diversity of forms of public participation of the citizenry outside the confines of the old official party.
All this has affected the basis for the power of corporatist unionism in several ways. On the one hand, as an effect of the crises and restructuring, the space available to them for action has been considerably reduced.
In the few years between and , union membership in the country dropped in both absolute and relative terms. In absolute terms, it fell from 4,, to 4,, members.
In relative terms, the unionization rate dropped from On the other hand, the legitimacy that corporatism achieved from chan- neling government social spending, from increasing real wages and from being the guarantor of job security has been seriously eroded.
Together with this, the cost of political change to the corporatist union leaderships must also be taken into consideration.
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Between and , the percentage of PRI deputies that came from any of the corporatist unions dropped from Alternative unionism suffers from structural weakness. In the first year of the Vicente Fox administration, his signals to the world of labor have been contradictory.
Both cases are kinds of work that make union action problematic. In the first case, they simply cannot be organized in unions; in the second case, one of the comparative advantages offered to investors is precisely low wages, something that crashes head on with effective union action.
In any case, it is useful to note two important elements in the discussion about the LFT. One is the discourse of Minister of Labor Carlos Abascal. The other refers to the mechanisms through which the government has attempted to promote its proposal for legislation.
The minister of labor repeatedly calls for everyone to forget any reference not only to the class struggle, which he thinks permeates current legislation, but any form of conflict at all between workers and employers.
On the contrary, Mr. Abascal constantly calls for 14 people to recognize that there are no possible grounds for clashes and that there are not even different interests in the world of production, but that what must be aspired to is a situation wherein everyone is recognized as an equal co-participant in a common project, the company. An explicit effort has been made to leave the political parties out of these discussions —although, it should be mentioned that they have not shown themselves very interested in the issue— as well as other social sectors.
The output of this working group has been very poor and everything seems to indicate that the issue will be postponed. On the one hand, during some conflicts such as the movements of two UNT organizations that led to strikes the Volkswagen workers and the flight attendants , the government did not declare the strikes legally non-existent.
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However, it has made some rather legally shaky interventions such as denying miners and airline pilots their right to belong to the union of their choice, or refusing soccer players the right to legally register their union, in the grand tradition of PRI government control over union activity. In addition to all these problems, Mexican unionism must face other challenges in the immediate future, very serious, structural challenges, among which are those related to employment and for which none of the union currents seem to have answers.
One of the most important is a product of the course the Mexican economy has taken since the early s: the mushrooming of a never-ending list of kinds of activities including self-employment and non-paid family work totally divorced from formalized, regulated, stable, long-term, protected wage labor, the traditional basis for Mexican unionism.It is important to relate this to the fact that quality and productivity were actually of minor concern to management, due to the existence of an overprotected domestic market where it sent the immense majority of its output.
Minimize nights out These nights out usually create a hole in the student's pocket, There will always be something to spend on, whether it be booze, cigarette or food, Tutor for a fee You could offer your tutorial services for a minimal fee. Now, why has a union structure that had been very powerful in the political system, that had been functional for the import substitution industrial- and sources of power of the unionism currently in crisis.
Until September 11, the U. Architect Jaime Abundis tells us about the difficulties of the Franciscan friars who left their mark on five missions nestled in the mountains, whose magnificent facades and majestic cloisters are well worth a visit. On the other hand, in the United States, people accused Mexico of not expressing unconditional support rapidly enough.