WHO guidance note: comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control: a healthier future for girls and .. techetolyson.tk 2. Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention techetolyson.tk | Risk Factors. A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a. the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP), the International Atomic Energy (techetolyson.tk).
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Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in Brazil. Among wom- will address the advancement of knowledge on cervical cancer. The topics. What is cervical cancer? Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. Cancer is always named for the part of the body where it starts, even. Understanding Cervical Cancer is reviewed approximately every two years. Screening Guidelines Working Party, National Cervical Screening Program.
Patient Information 6. Case Report 5. Letter 1. Full Text pdf link PDF. Full Text pdf link PDF has multimedia.
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download this article. Rent this article. download access Subscribe to JN Learning for one year. download this activity. A woman may need to go to a hospital for a cervical cone biopsy removal of a larger, cone-shaped sample of cervical tissue. Certain factors affect prognosis chance of recovery and treatment options. The prognosis chance of recovery depends on the following: The stage of the cancer the size of the tumor and whether it affects part of the cervix or the whole cervix, or has spread to the lymph nodes or other places in the body.
The type of cervical cancer. The patient's age and general health. Whether the patient has a certain type of human papillomavirus HPV.
Whether the patient has human immunodeficiency virus HIV. Whether the cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred come back. Treatment options depend on the following: The stage of the cancer.
The patient's desire to have children.
Screening for Cervical Cancer
Treatment of cervical cancer during pregnancy depends on the stage of the cancer and the stage of the pregnancy. For cervical cancer found early or for cancer found during the last trimester of pregnancy, treatment may be delayed until after the baby is born. For more information, see the section on Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy.
Stages of Cervical Cancer Key Points After cervical cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the cervix or to other parts of the body.
There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body. Cancer may spread from where it began to other parts of the body. The following stages are used for cervical cancer: Carcinoma in Situ Stage 0 Stage I Stage III Stage IV After cervical cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the cervix or to other parts of the body.
The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the cervix or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment.
The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process: CT scan CAT scan : A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles.
The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography. PET scan positron emission tomography scan : A procedure to find malignant tumor cells in the body. Because cervical cancers are radiosensitive, radiation may be used in all stages where surgical options do not exist.
Surgical intervention may have better outcomes than radiological approaches. Microinvasive cancer stage IA may be treated by hysterectomy removal of the whole uterus including part of the vagina. Alternatives include local surgical procedures such as a loop electrical excision procedure or cone biopsy. If a cone biopsy does not produce clear margins  findings on biopsy showing that the tumor is surrounded by cancer free tissue, suggesting all of the tumor is removed , one more possible treatment option for women who want to preserve their fertility is a trachelectomy.
It is a viable option for those in stage I cervical cancer which has not spread; however, it is not yet considered a standard of care,  as few doctors are skilled in this procedure. Even the most experienced surgeon cannot promise that a trachelectomy can be performed until after surgical microscopic examination, as the extent of the spread of cancer is unknown. If the surgeon is not able to microscopically confirm clear margins of cervical tissue once the woman is under general anesthesia in the operating room, a hysterectomy may still be needed.
This can only be done during the same operation if the woman has given prior consent. Due to the possible risk of cancer spread to the lymph nodes in stage 1b cancers and some stage 1a cancers, the surgeon may also need to remove some lymph nodes from around the uterus for pathologic evaluation.
A radical trachelectomy can be performed abdominally  or vaginally  and opinions are conflicting as to which is better. Complications are uncommon, although women who are able to conceive after surgery are susceptible to preterm labor and possible late miscarriage. Radiation therapy is given as external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis and brachytherapy internal radiation.
Women treated with surgery who have high-risk features found on pathologic examination are given radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy to reduce the risk of relapse. When cisplatin is present, it is thought to be the most active single agent in periodic diseases.
On June 15, , the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of a combination of two chemotherapy drugs, hycamtin and cisplatin, for women with late-stage IVB cervical cancer treatment. For surgery to be curative, the entire cancer must be removed with no cancer found at the margins of the removed tissue on examination under a microscope. Prognosis depends on the stage of the cancer. These statistics may be improved when applied to women newly diagnosed, bearing in mind that these outcomes may be partly based on the state of treatment five years ago when the women studied were first diagnosed.
Regular screening has meant that precancerous changes and early-stage cervical cancers have been detected and treated early. Figures suggest that cervical screening is saving 5, lives each year in the UK by preventing cervical cancer. All of the Nordic countries have cervical cancer-screening programs in place. In Africa outcomes are often worse as diagnosis is frequently at a latter stage of disease. Worldwide, cervical cancer is both the fourth-most common cause of cancer and deaths from cancer in women.
Australia had cases of cervical cancer in The number of women diagnosed with cervical cancer has dropped on average by 4. In Canada, an estimated 1, women will have been diagnosed with cervical cancer in and will have died.
In India, the number of people with cervical cancer is rising, but overall the age-adjusted rates are decreasing.
In the European Union, about 34, new cases per year and over 16, deaths due to cervical cancer occurred in An estimated 12, new cervical cancers and 4, cervical cancer deaths will occur in the United States in The median age at diagnosis is Hispanic women are significantly more likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer than the general population. The rates of new cases in the United States was 7 per , women in Epidemiologists working in the early 20th century noted that cervical cancer behaved like a sexually transmitted disease.
In summary:. These historical observations suggested that cervical cancer could be caused by a sexually transmitted agent. Initial research in the s and s attributed cervical cancer to smegma e. Heins et al. In summary, HSV was seen as a likely cause because it is known to survive in the female reproductive tract, to be transmitted sexually in a way compatible with known risk factors, such as promiscuity and low socioeconomic status.
HSV was recovered from cervical tumour cells. National Cancer Institute. In Australia, Aboriginal women are more than five times more likely to die from cervical cancer than non-Aboriginal women, suggesting that Aboriginal women are less likely to have regular Pap tests. After controlling for stage, there still existed differences in survival rates. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cervical cancer Location of cervical cancer and an example of normal and abnormal cells Specialty Oncology Symptoms Early: Main article: Cervical cancer staging.
Main articles: Cervical screening and Pap test. See also: Timeline of cervical cancer. Archived from the original on 5 July Retrieved 24 June World Health Organization. Chapter 5. Retrieved 25 June Robbins Basic Pathology 8th ed. Saunders Elsevier. Holland-Frei cancer medicine 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. Archived from the original on Disease Markers. Archived from the original on 6 July Archived from the original on 4 July Archived PDF from the original on Retrieved 29 August A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.
Archived from the original on 25 June Retrieved 10 June Obstetrics and Gynecology International.
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 10 January Retrieved 8 March Control of HPV infection and related cancer through vaccination. Recent Results in Cancer Research. Retrieved Cervix Uteri Cancer". November 10, Retrieved 18 June Chapter 1. Retrieved 1 November Am Fam Physician. Carraher Carraher's polymer chemistry Ninth ed. Boca Raton: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia.
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Gynecological Endocrinology. Gynaecology by Ten Teachers 18 ed. Hodder Education. Oldham, Robert O. Principles of cancer biotherapy 5th ed.
CS1 maint: Extra text:The following stages are used for cervical cancer: Carcinoma in Situ Stage 0 Stage I Stage III Stage IV After cervical cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the cervix or to other parts of the body. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
Evidence from observational studies indicates that certain treatments for precancerous lesions e. For surgery to be curative, the entire cancer must be removed with no cancer found at the margins of the removed tissue on examination under a microscope.
HPV vaccines are typically given to age 9 to 26, as the vaccine is only effective if given before infection occurs.
Endocervical curettage : A procedure to collect cells or tissue from the cervical canal using a curette spoon-shaped instrument. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5:
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